The Dark Side of Twitter

October 11, 2010 Leave a comment

Recently, while surfing Masters of Media Blog, I found a  post about Twitter and its possibilities to become a Public Sphere. The ‘sphere’ I have in my mind is one that had been envisaged by Jurgen Habermas, namely

‘part of public life where ordinary people exchange information and opinions regarding potholes on Main Street and international politics’ (Rheingold, 2000:175).

I am talking about last year Ellen Sluis’s post Twitter: Public Space or Public Sphere? In her post she writes that the Internet gives enormous possibilities for many people to share their own thought and feelings. People write, produce and express more than in the times of centralized, one way flow, with little interaction media. The Internet would be the new public sphere for people to participate and engage democratically. Ellen points Twitter out to exemplify how brief messages can  be instantaneously share by people all over the world.

I totally agree, with the author of the post, that the Internet, with Twitter as an example, is not an ideal Public Sphere yet. However, with features like: efficiency, capacity, interactivity and freedom from time-space constrains (Poster, 1998);  user friendliness, cheapness, reduction of the problem of selectivity and bias (Tambni, 1999), this new medium is very close to the quintessence of democracy. There are of course counter arguments for that, however this is not the issue I would like to take up in this post.

Amongst many for and against internet as a public sphere Paparachisi (2002) comes up with very important characteristic, I would like to focus on here. Namely, the potential of the internet to bring people from diverse backgrounds together, which is highly visible in web 2.0, twitter in particular. This issue is also realized by Tambini (1999), who states that internet provides devices, that link together individuals or groups with the most obscure common interests. And Twitter is a great example of all those above mentioned positive as well as negative characteristics of the web.

There is no doubt that the internet is in favor to little known individuals and groups to reach out citizens directly. Using interactive and non-edited media and the powerful search engines of the internet , individuals with the most obscure common interests can find one another and communicate.  Tambini gives as an example neo-Nazi groups, an extreme right activists who gained transnational importance , what would otherwise be impossible in traditional media due to huge expenses and illegality.

As we can read in a article ‘Nazis get onto Twitter, but they’re not being blocked’, more and more extreme activists use Twitter to address and reach more and more people. All those extreme activists follow the newest technology and media and have started to use Twitter as an another (new) channel of communication and promotion of their detrimental values. Nazism, Fascism are issues that are very irritating for numerous countries. For example Ebay famously had to block the sale of Nazi memorabilia in Germany for this reason.

In the first half of 2010, there was an interesting debate around extreme activists micro-blogging on Twitter. Many of them, like Heil_Hitler_88 (one of many Twitter users that promote Nazis and fascist ideologies), were requested to delete their feeds for containing insulting messages.

At the moment, a few months later account of @Heil_Hitler_88 does not exist. Was it blocked, removed or expired? Who knows, for us it is important that such harmful and illegal (in many countries) content survived on Twitter for so long. Even at the moment, when we type ‘Nazi’ in the Twitter we can find numerous users propagating this extreme values. But this is Internet – ‘a public sphere’ where everyone is allowed to speak and to be heard. To the certain extend obviously. This is also an issue with many racist movements, or any other believes that might hurt other individuals.

‘Could Twitter become terrorists’ newest killer app?’ similar headings could be found in 2008 important information websites. The buzz started when military report concerning new media devices (Twitter as one of them) had been revealed. According to a military intelligence report:

‘The social networking Web site Twitter could be used by terrorists to communicate as they execute a potentially catastrophic attack’

The report outlines three possible uses for Twitter as a terrorist tool. They are:

1. Sending and receiving messages to and from other terrorist cell members.

2. Detonating a roadside bomb.

3. Following a soldier’s Tweets.

‘Twitter is already used by some members to post and/or support extremist ideologies and perspectives,’ the report said. ‘For example, there are multiple pro and anti Hezbollah Tweets. In addition, extremist and terrorist use of Twitter could evolve over time to reflect tactics that are already evolving in use by ‘hacktivists’ and activist for surveillance. This could theoretically be combined with targeting.’

The report noted that human rights groups, communist organizations, anarchists and others are already using the Twitter to communicate with each other and send messages to broader audiences. Either it is a probable hypothesis or just an another operation by US government we have to be aware that it can become a real danger, if  used in an ‘appropriate’ way. For sure,  for terrorists Twitter is another source of information, another way to fight with their ‘enemies’.  And that’s not everything….

As we can read in ‘naiin’ website (as a non-profit non-governmental organization,  that has been fighting all forms of cyber crime across the world)

‘Child porn consumers have now also discovered Twitter as another communications channel. Hidden behind usually innocuous-sounding user names, child porn consumers tweet to each other, especially since it allows them to distribute child pornography quickly and easily’, explains Dennis Grabowski, chairman of naiin.

With just a few clicks, users ale able to post links on Twitter to websites, videos and images. ‘More and more tweets with links to Internet content containing child pornography are being posted’, says naiin’s chairman,
Often, pedophile Twitter users also use the micro-blogging site to let each other know when child pornography websites are taken down or blocked. Like-minded individuals are notified by tweet of the new addresses (URLs) where they can find the sites in future. ‘Twitter is therefore also increasingly being used by child porn consumers to lessen the impact of websites being removed and blocked’, explains Dennis Grabowski. Unfortunately, this makes the micro-blogging service a useful information system for many consumers of child pornography.

One of the biggest problems of the Internet and Twitter, in particular, are facts that: the Internet is the hardest to control communication medium in human history, does not filter information, offers many-to-many communication and allows for a greater degree of reciprocity between senders and receivers of information (Olsen, 2005). This is a reason why such tweets are many times posted and reach myriads of people.

Democracy is all about being free to give your opinion. But to what extend can we be free? There are of course issues that are considered un-democratic, harmful and many times illegal. Should they be automatically blocked on platforms like Twitter?

The purpose it the post is not to critique Twitter or any other social media element, but to turn your attention to issues that many times take place, what worries me a lot. I obviously appreciate positive usage of the Twitter, I tolerate commercial purposes, but I cannot stand individuals or groups who take an advantage from such new media devices to destroy democracy. This is the conclusion to this article, which can also encourage you to elaborate more on the topic and to come up with interesting research questions and findings.


Sluis, E. (2009) Twitter: Public Space or Public Sphere. Masters of Media. Available at:

Olesen, T. (2005) `Transnational Publics: New Spaces of Social Movement Activism and the Problem of Global Long-Sightedness’, Current Sociology 53(3);

Poster, M. (1997) ‘Cyberdemocracy: the Internet and the public sphere’, in. D. Holmes (ed.) Virtual Politics: Identity and Community in Cyberspace, London: Sage Publications;

Papacharisi, Z. (2002), ‘The virtual sphere; the internet as a public sphere’, in New Media and Society, 4(2);

Rheingold, H. (2000) The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier, available at [accessed 10.03.2010];

Sparks, C. (1998) ‘Is There a Global Public Sphere?’, in D.K. Thussu (ed.) Electronic Empires: Global Media and Local Resistance. London: Arnold;

Tambini, D. (1999), ‘New media and democracy: The civic networking movement’, in New Media and Society 1,3;

Websites cited:


Playing with InkScape

October 10, 2010 Leave a comment

Last week, during my New Media Practice module we were playing with an Open Source vector graphics editor – InkScape.

So it’s time to show off my work. Nothing sophisticated, simple banner.


Categories: Uncategorized

Wikipedia – an Impression About the First Entry

October 4, 2010 Leave a comment

On Saturday, 2nd october, I become an official member of Wikipedia community. Namely, I posted my first entry. The article is about the Multimedia City, a project I wrote about in my first blog post on Masters of Media Blog. I have been really interested in the project, so I thought why not to make an entry about it. Firstly, I tried if there is already such entry on Polish language Wikipedia, and unfortunately (or fortunately) it was already there. In fact, entry on polish Wikipedia was a little bit outdated and not sufficient, therefore I thought, why not to update it and post it on English Wiki.  It is what I did. Here is a link to my first Wikipedia entry. It was also the first time I have edited an entry on the website.

It was quite big challenge for me, especially from the technical site (taking into account that it was my first wikipedia entry ever), I actually think that it was real fun and rewarding task. It is nice to share your knowledge with others. This experience, in fact, helped me to practically understand what web 2.0 or what others call it social media,  which allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content ( Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010) are.

Web 2.0 is called the wisdom Web, people-centric Web, participative Web, and read/write Web (Constantinides and Fountain, 2008).

Wikipedia is actually what web 2.0 is believed to be. I felt like participating in the whole community and in the creation and development of the platform. I took a part in collective project, that everyone can benefit from.

Having realized that many of my fellow collegues from Master of Media degree had plenty of problems especially with Wikipedia editing policies, I was expecting the same to happen to my entry. However, nothing similar happened so far. No boots, no treats of cancellation. Hopefully, aditors are not on holidays… Or maybe it’s just a matter of time….

Interesting thing, that has drawn my attention is a trace edit relied to fixing one link to disambiguation page 3D. You would wonder what does it mean. Here you go:

Disambiguation pages on Wikipedia are used as a process of resolving conflicts in article titles that occur when a single term can be associated with more than one topic, making that term likely to be the natural title for more than one article. In other words, disambiguations are paths leading to different articles which could, in principle, have the same title (Wikipedia).

Less than two hours after I had posted my first entry, a Wikipedian called R’n’B fixed the ‘disambiguation’ to make the entry correct and more precise. I thought ‘great, cheers for that’, and at the same time I thought ‘ Haven’t you got anything more exciting to do than looking up for shortcomings and fixing it?’. What drives people to do it? Maybe it is a kind of hobby, a passion to which they devote majority of their daytime. Everyone has different interests, if this is the case, that’s great that there are such people who care and look after the encyclopedia. That makes Wikipedia more reliable.

Therefore is it passion, obsession or simple competition?

So what actually makes some people want to contribute to such a huge scale to the platform? This is very interesting topic for a research that would certainly enrich frowing discourse about social media.

To conclude, I need to say that this assignment for sure has encouraged me to participate and contribute  more to Wikipedia, and I will for sure create and edit more entries there.


Kaplan, A. and Haenlein, M. (2010). “Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media”. Business Horizons 53 (1): 59–68;

Constantinides, E. and Fountain, S. (2008) Web 2.0: Conceptual foundations and marketing issues.Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice , 9 (3). pp. 231-244.

Does Facebook Rule? Ideas For The Future

September 27, 2010 Leave a comment

The issue of social media has recently been discussed and taken up more and more. This concept is starting to substitute the term Web 2.0, at the same time show the directions where contemporary internet goes. Blogs, microblogs, forums, social networking websites like Facebook, Twitter, Flickr are very common nowadays. We live in social media era, where participants have became consumers. While traditional media are becoming less and less important, web 2.0 is getting its peak. One of very important and key elements of these media are social network sites, that are defined as:

“web-based services that allow individuals to (1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system” (boyd & Ellison, 2007).

Social networking services (SNS) are no temporary trend among their users. Here you can find list of social networking websites, limited to notable, well-known sites. More and more  Internet users manage their profiles, contact with other people. It has became their everyday life.

I would like here to take up an issue the most popular social networking platform, namely Facebook. Taking advantage of key characteristics of web 2.0, it centers hundreds of millions of people around itself. I can be easily said that Facebook has became the most powerful social networking platform, what has also been presented in various rankings and statistics. It has huge  number of supporters. But on the other hand more and more people have started to see this powerful networking site as a treat, and started to fight with its huge effects. The key arguments for opponents and issues of privacy, its commercial attitude and replacing real human interactions by virtual one.

Recently, numerous alternative platforms,  In response to growing concerns about privacy on the internet, have started. They are for example: FriendsterSocialGoTrustWorks etc. They are really good ideas, that allow for similar functions as Facebook does. However will they be able to weaken the position of the giant? This question is open to discussion. In this Blog entry I would like to approach the topic treating the platform as a good, commodity.  I also want to use Facebook as an example to give an idea how alternative platforms can struggle with SNS giants.

Why it is so popular, and probably will in the future lead in the field? I would like to put your attention to elements, which (deliberately or by a coincidence) encourage or sometimes ‘make’ people use the platform. Facebook expands constantly, it will be difficult for alternative SNS’s to beat their biggest rival. Maybe Facebook is too powerful for such alternative projects?

Many people have attacked Mark Zuckerberg (the founder of Facebook) and the whole platform for their extreme approach to Privacy (or the lack thereof). Moreover, many influencers including Leo Laporte have deleted their Facebook accounts in protest.  The number of Facebook’s anti-fans such as Sick of Facebook or The Anti-Facebook League of Intelligentsia is growing, however there are still millions of people who are not aware of the treat of the platform. What is more, it is becoming to be believed that Facebook is an essential ( like cell phone or credit card), without which you would be outdated.

Why people might have such feeling?

Facebook is everywhere. It connects 500 millions of people around the world. No doubts, it is an result of purposeful endeavors of those who stay behind the success of the platform. Facebook is becoming more and more interconnected into contemporary world. Easy example can be given. Recently, numerous models of mobile phones and other technological gadgets, with apps that allow for access to Facebook, have been introduced.

Nowadays, more and more brands or companies use this platform to reach their clients. They realize that this platform allows for cheap, and efficient manner to advertise their goods. So think about it from the perspective of a consumer. If, for example you are interested in some product, visiting company’s Facebook page might be the only way to get certain information about it or to contact a company.

Henry Jenkins (American media scholar), talking about how certain media products (e.g. movie) become very successful on many platforms,  introduces the term ‘transmedia storytelling’ which refers to a new aesthetic ‘that has emerged in response to media convergence – one that places new demands on consumers and depends on the active participation of knowledge communities’ (Jenkins, 2007:21). As the author claims, transmedia storytelling is an art of world making, and to fully experience any fictional world, consumers have to assume the role of hunters and gatherers, chasing down bits of the story across media channels.

“content becomes invasive and fully permeates the audience’s lifestyle. A transmedia project develops storytelling across multiple forms of media in order to have different “entry points” in the story; entry-points with a unique and independent lifespan but with a definite role in the big narrative scheme.” (Iacobacci, 2008).

Facebook also takes part in such a process (deliberately or not). People talk about Facebook, write about Facebook and even make films about it. The Social Network is an upcoming 2010 drama film directed by David Fincher about the founding of the social networking website Facebook. Written by Aaron Sorkin, The Social Network was adapted from Ben Mezrich‘s 2009 nonfiction novel The Accidental Billionaires. Recent film is an another example that the website appears on numerous platforms, praising Facebook’s brand. Such examples are for sure favoring Facebook and will certainly contribute to  huge number of the platform’s users.

Facebook’s new features.

Apart from (deliberative or coincidental) endeavors, the company itself improves the working of the platform in order to keep gaining newer and newer users. Here are some new features, found at CNN website, that company wants to introduce in order to (what is obvious) expand its empire.

‘Like’ buttons

Buttons ‘like’ are going to start popping up all over the Internet. You indicate (by clicking) that you find the content interesting, relevant or helpful. It means that you would recommend it to a friend. Before the buttons were only on Facebook. Now, they’ll be all over the place.

A consequence of these ‘like’ buttons will be that your friends’ Facebook profile photos will start showing up all over the web. If you see your friends’ smiling faces online, it’s an indication that they have clicked a ‘like’ button on the Web site you’re visiting. These new Facebook features will show up regardless of whether or not you have entered a user name and password on a particular Web site. One overarching thing you might notice is that Facebook is going to be all over the Internet with these changes. Facebook will be everywhere…

I believe that it would not be easy to  break with Facebook. Of course it is everyone’s personal decision. Do you  want to be a member of this huge community? Or maybe you prefer to use alternative sources, that respect you privacy? It is all up to you, but remember that it will not be easy to forget or separate yourself from the platform…


boyd, d. m., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), available at

Iacobacci, N. (2008), From crossmedia to transmedia: thoughts on the future of entertainment available at

Jenkins, H. (2006), Convergence culture: where old and new media collide, New York.

O’Reilly, T. (2005), What Is Web 2.0? Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software, article available at

Sutter, J. (2010) What you should know about Facebook’s changes, accessed at

Book review: Business Model Innovation Cultural Heritage

September 20, 2010 Leave a comment

Over the past decade, libraries, museums, historical societies, archives and other cultural heritage institutions have realized the capacities and possibilities that bring the newest media, the internet in particular. Some of them have made a quite good start at ‘digitizing important cultural heritage collections and developing digital services’ (p.4). Although the sector is becoming more and more advanced, there is an enormous need for the improvement in operations of such institutions.  There is still a recognition ‘that these digital are not perfectly suited to the needs of today’s users’ (p.4).

‘Business Model Innovation Cultural Heritage’ is a result as well a report of a project carried out in Netherlands in 2009 by two Dutch institutions, The DEN Foundation as well as Knowledgeland; and commissioned by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science in 2010.

As we read in the introduction, the book ‘aims to provide cultural heritage institutions with better insight into obstacles to be overcome’ (p. 5). The authors are right. The book is a kind of textbook for those, who already have made cultural and social capital more accessible. The publication aim is to improve their operations.  ‘Business Model Innovation Cultural Heritage is also designed for those cultural institutions, who have no experience in digital distribution of cultural heritage.

Digital developments result in opportunities that were never before available. Therefore, in the first chapter we can find an exhaustive explanation of what ‘Business Model Innovation’ actually is.

Reading this part, reader starts to realize a potential of  moving from analog to digitized cultural heritage.  It teaches how to, in a relatively easy way, increase possibilities, effects, reach and revenues of such institutions.

‘The more heritage institutions move outside their comfort zones, the greater the value that is created’ (p.9).

Referring to cultural heritage institutions in the Netherlands, authors convince a reader that the transition from an analogue to a digital proposition offers numerous opportunities to create social value. They also want readers to realize less positive aspects of such enterprises, namely obstacles that would be encountered during this process.

The following four chapters delve deeper into those elements of the business model that present obstacles, i.e. Organization, ICT Infrastructure, Copyright and Revenue Models.

New Media have brought enormous changes, that no one had even imagined twenty years ago. They have great  capacities, but on the other side they require enormous transformations. Cultural Heritage institutions are also faced with such changes with organization. Expectation regarding the availability and usability of digital cultural heritage information are increasing, especially from superior bodies like, for instance in the Netherlands, The Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science.

‘If it is not available online, it does not exist’ (p.38).

However, analogue working traditions do not always fit well in an environment with such huge possibilities, that new media have brought. Therefore, there is always the issue of large structural investments.  Authors propose collaboration, clear vision of working and what is the most important, making customers feel well served. Organization, is the core that may help reaching a whole new audience, what would not be possible without digital media.

Chapter four discusses capacities as well as obstacles that may be encountered when running cultural heritage institution in the digital world.

‘Even if an institution already offers online access to it collection database, there remains the question as to whether it can be easily incorporated into the social web (web 2.0) or semantic web (web 3.0). The further development of the infrastructure would therefore have to support greater flexibility and connectivity’ (p.46).

In clear way, using particular examples from the project that had been carried, authors explain which factors can determine the success of success of such enterprises, in appropriate way using ICT infrastructure.

As we all know, working in such an environment (museums, libraries etc.) requires extensive knowledge about the copyright. Therefore, this issue is deeply discussed in chapter five. After a general introduction to it, we can find useful information about copyright in the digital era. It is very important for those who run such an enterprise to be aware about all the laws that are related to it, because in digitized cultural heritage institutions, copyright plays enormous role. For those, who really struggle with this field, authors propose numerous different models of dealing with the issue of copyright, which seem very helpful.

Finally, the last, sixth chapter, is devoted to Revenue Models. Do such institutions operate for financial profits? Of course not. However they need money, in order to be able to preserve, cultivate, look after and distribute cultural and social heritage. Therefore, this publication, presenting and comparing 5 different approaches to revenue models, explains how to get maximum profit out of the possibilities of digitization.

To conclude, I need  to say that the book is a must-read for those who already work or will in future work in the industry of digitized cultural heritage. Based on finished project, enriched with authors empirical knowledge and experience, gives a reader great insight into the field. It is easy to read, with plenty of examples from the project.

‘Although we are still far from reaching our goal of creating the ubiquitous, open, virtual library that is necessary to support the knowledge economy, we feel that we have at least been able to map out the issues and some paths towards solutions. This has resulted in a publication that I would like to bring to your attention’ (website).

Highly recommended also for those who deal with traditional (analogue) cultural heritage institutions, because key information and ideas that can be adjusted in this sector, can be found in the book. It will certainly convince them to go a step further and to digitize and distribute their collection online.

Business Model Innovation Cultural Heritage
by The DEN Foundation and Knowledgeland
Ministry of Education, Culture and Science
Amsterdam, and the Hague,  2010

Electronic version of the book can be downloaded as PDF file in Dutch and English.

A rise of a Polish silicon valley?

September 12, 2010 Leave a comment

It may seem strange, that in my first post I am writing about a place that is unknown for the majority of you. I am writing about it, because this place and a project has a personal significance to me. Firstly, it is located in my hometown, which I love and where I want to spend my life. Secondly, the project, I want to bring closer to you, is amongst others, a reason why I am here and can be a part of this Blog. It all began in 2006, when I was about to choose a direction of my further education and career. Being fascinated and interested in media and the newest technologies I followed numerous websites devoted to those fields, and I found out about the project. This has lead me through the paths I’ve came through and has brought me to the place I am at the moment. Moreover, I want to introduce to you this place, because I believe that it will be crucial center of innovation working in the field of multimedia and informative systems.

WSB-NLU is well-known as a university which provides unique and innovate concepts. Recently, it has unveiled the idea of Multimedia City. The idea of the Multimedia City is based on the concept of The Nowy Sącz Network of Innovation and Knowledge Transfer, a project co-financed by the ESF funds.

Multimedia City main building vizualization

The project, titled “Multimedia City,” began operations in the Nowy Sącz national center of innovation and focused on multimedia and information systems. The project will be based on the resources of the Nowy Sącz School of Business – National-Louis University. In The Multimedia City, a unique set of competencies and state-of-the-art infrastructure facilities will be collected, which will enable it to run any project in the field of multimedia and high-technologies. The Multimedia City will consist of state-of-the-art movie, graphic and sound studios cooperating with information, architecture and application development sections. These coexist on the basis of the most modern servers and solutions in field of data transfer. Searching for new ways of using multimedia and information systems, as well as implementing existing solutions into new fields, this project can be crucial for Polish economic development at different levels.

The Multimedia City’s strategic goal is to become one of the tenth most innovative centers in the world, which are working on the application of multimedia in education, business and entertainment. The individual elements of Multimedia City are enabling to implement innovation to economy in accordance with the following stages of innovation chain: fresh ideas and innovative know-how, testing ideas through research and development phase, and implementation and adaptation of the innovative solutions in enterprises.

Multimedia City experts identified fields of multimedia application, which possess the largest developmental potential:

1. Mobile Technologies such as creation of localization service system based on the integrated technology of internet services, GIS platform, combined with GSM and GPS networks; mobile banking; authorizations based on mobile technologies.

2. Computer animation, creation of the studio that will help to produce computer animation used in Park’s products (computer games, special effects in films, visualization of data, simulation, advertisement, architecture)

3. Movie post-production, creation of a studio dealing with postproduction (montage, special effects incorporation, formatting, sound/making a soundtrack)

4. Computer games used in education (computer support to traditional training), business (simulating decision games) and entertainment

5. Internet, development of technologies such as Web 2.0, ASP, CSS, PHP, CGI, Java to be used in education, entertainment and business use.

6. E-marketing, e-advertising, use of multimedia in marketing and advertisement

7. E-Learning, increasing multimedia technology usage in education (creation of learning environment based on multimedia educational content)

Multimedia City will offer complex infrastructure solution (10 thousand square meters of Technological Park) which will enable to run innovative activities in the field of multimedia.

Recently, I had a great pleasure to personally meet Krzysztof Pawłowski, the business school’s rector and one of fathers of the idea, who even being on holidays was working for the project.  He also assured me that 11th September 2012 is the date when Multimedia City will be fully opened and working.

I am sure that this project is made to succeed. Hard work, stubbornness and never-ending  pursuit of their goals are the features of project’s leaders (Krzysztof Pawlowski on the left, Krzysztof Wnek on the right) that will effect that literarly in two years Multimedia City may be the centre of new media and technology innovation.

“Who said new technologies have to develop in capital cities or metropolises! After all, the people are the most important. And their competence and enthusiasm,” says Krzysztof Pawlowski.

For more information visit Multimedia City’s website.